Workplace Health and Safety


 PUSHWORTH Pty Ltd is committed to providing a safe work environment to its staff, contractors, visitors and members of the public with whom it is involved.

This commitment will be pursued through the consistent application of its Safety Management System, which provides:

  • Measurable safety objectives and targets to ensure continued improvement aimed at elimination of work-related injury and illness;
  • A Compliance Management Program that ensures compliance with relevant WH&S legislation and other mandatory safety requirements;
  • A continuous training and awareness program, communicating system documentation that is maintained to reflect positive and compliant safety practices.

 Safety Objectives

  • To eliminate incidents of workplace injury;
  • To eliminate incidents of workplace illness caused by situations known to be extant at the time of system implementation;
  • To rapidly identify and mitigate workplace illness resulting from previously unknown hazards;
  • To enable all staff to recognize and report all workplace hazards;
  • To adequately control all workplace hazards;
  • To provide a safe working environment for all staff, visitors and members of the public who come in contact with PUSHWORTH;
  • To be constantly aware of the hazards that exist in the workplace, and the effectiveness of prescribed control measures;
  • To comply with the requirements of the Workplace Health & Safety Act and other mandatory requirements extant;
  • To afford confidence to staff, visitors, public and clients that PUSHWORTH provides a safe working environment
  • To demonstrate a culture of safety awareness and responsibility throughout the organization
  • To identify and act upon opportunities for improvement to safety practices to achieve and maintain an excellent management standard
  • Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public have an obligation to follow safe work practices, not to act in a manner so as to cause harm to people or property, to report hazards, and not to misuse anything provided in the interests of safety.
  • Attending Live Shows
  • Backstage at Live Shows
  • Competition Judge
  • Door Person
  • Facilitating Music Business Training
  • Festival Management
  • Working in the PUSHWORTH Workplace
  • Music Performance
  • Music Production
  • Show Management
  • Stage Management
  • Tour Management
  • Visiting Venues – Induction


Health and Safety Roles and Responsibilities


Below are listed typical legislative responsibilities imposed on Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public and others. However you should check precise legislative requirements which affect your workplace with the relevant state or territory occupational health and safety agency. Typically, health and safety legislation in Australia requires employers to make sure that – as far as are possible – the workplace is safe and the health of Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public is not damaged. This means:


  • Making sure that the way work is done is safe and does not affect Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public health;
  • Making sure that tools, equipment and machinery is safe and kept safe;
  • Making sure that ways of storing, transporting or working with dangerous materials (substances) is safe and does not damage Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public health;
  • Provide Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public with the information, instruction and training they need to do their job safely and without damaging their health;
  • Consult with Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public directly or through their health and safety representatives about health and safety in the workplace;
  • Check the work place regularly (monitor) and keep a record of what is found during these checks.
  • Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public also have responsibilities under the health and safety laws. Typically, Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public are required to:
  • Follow instructions and rules in the workplace – for example, to comply with instructions designed to ensure that work is carried out safely;
  • Work and behave in ways which are safe and do not endanger the health and safety of anyone in the workplace.


As a Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public, if you don’t do these things, you can be disciplined by your employer under your industrial award or enterprise agreement, or you could be prosecuted under the health and safety law in your State or Territory.


As well as employers and Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public, other people who have workplace health and safety responsibilities include people who sell materials and equipment, or who provide services to a workplace (e.g. maintenance, repairs, cleaning, building and construction). They must ensure that the goods they design, make, supply, install, maintain or repair will not cause injury or damage the health of people in workplaces.





Health & Safety


The section’s objective is to assist PUSHWORTH managers to ensure the health and safety of Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public in a coordinated, systematic and proactive manner. This will ensure compliance with relevant legislation and PUSHWORTH policies relating to health and safety.  This is an advisory unit with a strong training focus. Specifically, the Directors:

  • Provide topical H & S training
  • Train Workplace Safety Officers and Representatives
  • Provide advice on PUSHWORTH-wide Health and Safety policy and procedures
  • Participate on the PUSHWORTH Health and Safety Committee
  • Provide advice to the Entertainment and Hospitality Industries regarding specific health and safety issues and legislation
  • Maintain accident and injury databases
  • Conduct various levels of audits
  • Provide information and reports to assist staff
  • Maintain contact with relevant external authorities

Health & Safety Policy


PUSHWORTH as an employer is committed to providing a workplace, which is as safe as, is practicable in order to achieve its Training, Market Research and Entertainment Service goals.

PUSHWORTH management is accountable for managing the risks in partnership with the staff. Management will consult with Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public to achieve desired measurable outcomes within a continuous improvement framework.

PUSHWORTH will meet its legislative obligations and exceed them where feasible. This will include the provision of:

  • Safe systems of work and work environment
  • Safe plant, equipment, tools and personal protective equipment
  • Safe use, handling, storage and disposal of substances
  • Adequate information and training
  • Rehabilitation programs for injured workers, and
  • Appropriate supervision and enforcement of policies and procedures to ensure safe work practices.








How to resolve health and safety concerns in your workplace


Employers are required by law to consult with their Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public about the health and safety aspects of their work, or any changes to the workplace that could affect their health and safety.

Responsible employers will also establish good working relationships with trade unions whose members they employ to make sure that any worries Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public have about their health or safety can be tackled.


In all states and territories Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public in larger workplaces have the right to have a workplace occupational health and safety committee with elected Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public representatives and appointed employer representatives. In all states and territories except NSW Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public also have the right to elect a health and safety representative. Consultation about health and safety matters usually takes place between management and the Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public through OHS representatives or committees.


The duties of health and safety committees include:

  • To make sure there are policies and procedures on things such as: work with chemicals; how to report accidents and dangerous situations; buying safe equipment and machinery etc;
  • Know about all the health and safety problems in the workplace – this will include walk-around inspections, and studying reported accidents, illness, and workers compensation claims etc;
  • Advising on: ways of checking the workplace for hazards; safe job procedures; what is needed to reduce or get rid of the unsafe or unhealthy situations in the workplace etc;
  • Checking that work procedures are properly protecting workers health and safety;
  • Conduct workplace training about health and safety;
  • Set up ways of solving disagreements or problems.


The duties of health and safety representatives include:

  • Knowing about the health and safety hazards in the workplace;
  • Working with managers to work out ways of getting rid hazards, or if that’s not possible, protecting workers from them;
  • Doing walk around health and safety inspections and finding out about injuries, health problems and dangerous work situations;
  • Keeping up-to-date about health and safety matters in the workplace;
  • Talking with managers and Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public about changes in the workplace that may affect the health and safety of Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public.





Everyone in our workplace receives ongoing training so that they understand their responsibilities and are competent to meet those responsibilities. Our induction training outlines the workplace OHS policy and procedures. Job specific training includes all relevant safe operating procedures and hazard specific training.

Included are:

  1. Planning
  2. Legal Aspects
  3. Customer Relationships
  4. Operations
  5. Resource Management
  6. Financial Management
  7. Review and Monitoring


Identify the Challenge


Instead of tackling the difficult task of changing human behavior, the more proven approach is to investigate the risk factors in your workplace then set about eliminating or re-designing them.

Investigate your work environment – how the design of your workplace including the buildings, furniture and equipment design may be contributing to back strain. Risks can be avoided through good design of buildings and selection of equipment and furniture at the construction stage.

Review your work tasks and investigate how postures, weights and movements involved in various tasks may be contributing to back strain. Where practical you may be able to control the risks in existing workplaces through re-design or modification of your work environment, equipment, furniture, work processes, and/or work organization.


The flow and sequence of tasks in the work routine can be assessed for periods of intensive manual handling, prolonged static postures and repetitive bending and twisting.

An assessment of work experience, level of education/training, fatigue, stress levels and attitudes will identify areas of risk. Specific training can be arranged if the risk cannot be controlled any other way.

The people most aware of risks in the workplace will be those that are exposed to them throughout their daily duties. You and your colleagues are in a prime position to identify such risks and bring them to the attention of management for consideration of control measures.

An effective prevention strategy will require the participation and involvement of all individuals at your workplace including your employer who has a responsibility to become involved and committed to your health and safety. As a Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public, you in turn should work with your employer to ensure positive outcomes.




Accident, Incident & Safety Reporting


Reporting all safety problems, incidents and accidents in each work area is important for the safety and wellbeing of everyone at PUSHWORTH. We significantly improve the ability of our Health and Safety by reporting all safety problems, incidents and accidents and taking action.


For an incident or an accident:

  • The person involved or another person who was present should complete pages 1 & 2 of the four page report.
  • Pages 3 & 4 are completed by your Workplace Health and Safety Representative to further investigate the safety problem or accident if appropriate.
  • The Safety Problem Report and Investigation form should be filled in within 3 days of the incident occurring and a record kept for 12 months.


For a safety problem:

  • Simply complete the personal information section and the safety problem section on page 1.
  • What do I do with the form once it is filled in?
  • Please copy the form once, then send the original to PUSHWORTH Partners:



Use Incident Report


Back Care and Manual Handling


Kneel down on one knee, or bend your knees and hips while holding your back straight. Place one hand on your knee or a desk when bending from a seated position.


Whenever you can, push instead of pull. This puts less stress on your back and you have twice as much power. Stay close to the trolley or machine you are using and avoid reaching. Use both arms to prevent strain.


Avoid heavy loads; split large loads into smaller, more manageable loads. Lift an object by standing closer to it, then bend your knees to lower yourself into a squatting position while keeping your back upright and moving slowly into a standing position. Carry objects close to your body with your elbows tucked close to your torso.



To get objects from a high shelf, use a sturdy stool or ladder. Keep your shoulders, hips and feet facing the object; avoid twisting to reach things to the side. Before lifting, test the weight of the object by tipping one corner.

Exercise for Strength and Flexibility:

A regular program of exercise will strengthen key muscle groups and increase your flexibility. A strong, flexible back will not only make you feel better, but also reduce your risk of injury.

Your spine, or backbone, is the central support of your entire skeletal system. It is designed for strength, to support your body weight, and flexibility, to allow movement. When healthy, your spine is S-shaped with three natural curves. When these curves are in balance, your body weight is evenly distributed. To maintain this alignment, you need to have strong and flexible muscles in your back, legs and abdomen.

Review your work tasks and investigate how postures and movements involved in various tasks may be contributing to back strain. Where practical you may be able to control the risks in existing workplaces through modification of your work organization. The flow and sequence of tasks in the work routine can be assessed for periods of intensive manual handling, prolonged static postures and repetitive bending and twisting.


Children of Staff in the PUSHWORTH Workplace


Under the Queensland Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 PUSHWORTH has obligations to ensure the health and safety of all, including children, at or near the workplace. The legislation requires that clients and staff meet the following obligations


  • to follow instructions related to their employment at PUSHWORTH
  • to not interfere with or misuse anything provided for health and safety
  • to not place others or themselves at risk


Consistent with these obligations, a staff member must consider the following issues prior to bringing a child into the PUSHWORTH Workplace.

  • It is anticipated that staff will make all reasonable attempts to arrange alternative child care before bringing a child to the workplace or avail themselves of flexible work practices (eg flexitime) or leave options (eg Personal leave) where available and appropriate.
  • Approval to bring a child into the PUSHWORTH Workplace should be obtained from the relevant staff member or supervisor as soon as practical, ie in advance if possible or on arrival.
  • Children must not enter areas where potentially dangerous equipment or hazardous substances are present or areas that are subject to particular statutory or local regulations.
  • A common sense approach is necessary when bringing children into the PUSHWORTH Workplace. For example, children recently exposed to an infectious illness (eg chicken pox, rubella, mumps etc), or who are known to be ill, must not be brought into the PUSHWORTH Workplace.
  • It is important that the child’s presence into the PUSHWORTH Workplace does not result in disruption to the workplace.
  • The staff member bringing the child into the PUSHWORTH Workplace must be responsible for direct supervision of the child at all times and has ultimate and sole responsibility for the safety and care of the child. This responsibility cannot be delegated to another person.
  • Children must not enter in any areas designated as high risk. Children are not permitted in areas that are subject to particular statutory or local regulations (e.g. areas licensed to sell alcohol)
  • If the child were injured while into the PUSHWORTH Workplace and the PUSHWORTH is held to be negligent, any award against the PUSHWORTH to the child would be covered by the PUSHWORTH’s public liability insurance policy.
  • If the child is responsible for causing wilful damage to PUSHWORTH property, or causing an accident, the person responsible for the child will be held liable and may be sued for damages by the PUSHWORTH.
  • Children are not permitted in any other area with significant levels of risk to a child.


PUSHWORTH recognises the diversity of needs and demands placed on staff when balancing work, training and family responsibilities, and that occasionally it may be necessary to bring a child or children into the PUSHWORTH Workplace.




This policy applies to all Team Members, Students, Partners and Members of the Public.


Comfort at work


Comfort at work is an important issue. The best temperature for the workplace is the temperature most people find comfortable without particularly discomforting the few people who have unusual temperature preferences. In Workplace environments the best temperature is around 23°C and it is common for air-conditioning systems to be in the range 20°C to 26 °C. However, even this best temperature satisfies only 75-80% of people as personal preferences vary according to the clothing you wear and the work you are doing. In winter when you are wearing heavy clothes a comfortable temperature is 20° to 24°C. In the summer when you are wearing light clothes 23° to 26°C is more comfortable.

The most common complaints relating to air-conditioning are about comfort. These are that it is too hot, too cold, too stuffy, draughty or smelly.

These complaints are usually legitimate and commonly related to air-conditioning features such as:

  • positioning of vents, for example, causing local draughts
  • inappropriate number of vents, for example, inadequate air movement leading to stuffiness
  • contaminated air system
  • Incorrect air-flow rates leading to draughts or stuffiness



Air-conditioning can affect your comfort at work. Very rarely respiratory illnesses – such as Legionnaires disease, Pontiac Fever, and Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis – can also be spread by air-conditioning systems. These illnesses are generally related to bacteria and fungi growing in cooling towers or other parts of the system.

The control of these problems is relatively simple. The temperature of hot water must be kept high enough to kill the bacteria. Water-containing places – such as cooling towers – must be periodically cleaned and decontaminated. Effective maintenance requirements for air-conditioning systems are detailed in relevant Australian Standards.



In the air-conditioned Workplace action to identify actual or potential hazards caused by air-conditioning can be based on:

  • complaints from staff about air quality;
  • workplace inspections;
  • air quality test reports.


All complaints should be investigated. Relevant Australian Standards on air-conditioning and National Commission exposure standards for workplace air contaminants provide advice on the control of the occupational environment. Guidance can also be obtained from the National Health and Medical Research Council recommendations for air quality goals.

Effective measures can usually also be taken to improve worker comfort in factories and other workplaces without air-conditioning. When the workplace is too warm it is important to increase ventilation and local air movement by using fans. Overhead fans are recommended.



Humidity is the amount of moisture in the air. The indoor humidity to a large extent tracks the prevailing outdoor humidity. In cool, dry winter weather heating the air lowers the relative humidity and in Australia, because most air-conditioning systems do not humidify, dry conditions cannot be avoided.

For Workplace work normal variations in humidity have little effect on comfort or health. However, extremes can lead to discomfort. The high humidity which occurs in summer can be controlled by cooling the air. Humidity and stuffiness are often confused. Stuffiness is usually due to poor ventilation and air circulation.

Sometimes people who are working near windows are uncomfortable because of uneven heating and cooling effects from the window. In dry winter conditions some people may suffer minor complaints such as stuffy nose, eye and skin irritation, but these cannot be avoided.

Your employer has responsibility for providing you with a healthy and safe working environment. This includes an obligation to protect you from extremes of heat or cold by means of appropriate engineering controls or work practices. An employer’s duty of care requires them to take all reasonable practicable steps to resolve any problems. Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public are required to obey all reasonable instructions intended to ensure work is done in a healthy and safe way.








A communicable disease is an illness that can be passed to a person – either directly from another person, via an intermediate host like a mosquito or from an animal to a person.




Certain work or training-related activities may increase the risk of contracting Hepatitis B for some staff members or clients. The Queensland Health Department advises that staff or clients may have a greater chance of contracting Hepatitis B if, during their work/training, they handle potentially infectious human body fluids such as blood or body substances.

Individuals who may be required to work in Queensland Health’s facilities must be appropriately vaccinated (for example, against Hepatitis B) and provide proof of their immune status on completion of the course of injections. Queensland Health will exclude from their facilities persons who wish to undertake processes or procedures, which carry disease contamination risks, unless they produce evidence of their vaccination status prior to their first visit.

It is the responsibility of PUSHWORTH to conduct and document a risk assessment of work and training practices which may lead to exposure to infectious diseases. Where such risk requires certified vaccination of individuals, PUSHWORTH should develop appropriate local procedures to manage the certification and documentation process. PUSHWORTH will need to identify in advance any adverse work/training consequences for staff who are not vaccinated in accordance with the requirements of Queensland Health.


Other communicable / infectious diseases


The general public and the PUSHWORTH community may be subject to diseases, which spread from person to person, or from animals to persons. As identification and treatment of such diseases is subject to new information from time to time, the preferred source of information remains your doctor or the appropriate unit in the Queensland Department of Health. This site provides information on other forms of hepatitis, tetanus and viral or bacterial infections. See also the Health and Safety website.


Flu is a highly contagious viral disease and is easily spread through coughing and sneezing. Each case of the flu can cause:

  • 5-6 days of restricted activity
  • 3-4 days of bed disability
  • 3 days of work absenteeism
  • Symptoms including: abrupt onset of fever, muscular pains, headache, sore throat and coughing

Each year 10-20% of the community may be infected by the flu. Help protect yourself, your family and community



Healthy Maintenance


Flu or gastro are highly contagious viral diseases and can easily spread throughout an Workplace environment. When you get sick, your circulatory systems will be working overtime and totally out of alignment. More energy will be required to address the unbalance – hence your tiredness. There are many nasty little lergies scurrying around us as we speak. All you need to fight any lergy is a strong immune system. However as we live here and now with all the 21st century pros and cons, the reality is that our immune systems are not working to their optimum levels.

Your obligation is to ensure that you maintain a healthy immune system to combat flu and colds thereby minimising absenteeism.



Let’s get each of you feeling better.

  • Long Bath – add some sandalwood and basil oils.
    Once you HAVE the lergy – boil 6 oranges and 2 ginger stalks (sliced and diced)
    add a very hot bath. Let yourself sweat and sting for 20 minutes.
  • Get a massage – head, whole body, feet, and hands – use geranium, ylang ylang, jasmine and bergamot oils
    Pressure Points – 3 inches down from your knee cap – find the sore spot and massage and rub yourself every 30 minutes. Find the sore spot in between your thumb and pointer and massage and rub every other 30 minutes
    If you have a lingering headache, relieve it by getting 2 buckets of boiling hot water, add 6 drops of lavender oils into each and place one foot into each bucket for 30 minutes or until you have to run to the toilet.
  • Drink herbal teas – peppermint, ginger, chamomile or plain hot water 6 times a day
  • Drink 4 litres of water each day.
  • Begin your day with fresh juice – carrot, ginger, apple, beetroot, pineapple, celery
  • Avoid caffeine, sugar, wheat and dairy
  • East Plenty of Fruit, Soup, Salad, Rice, Curry and Stir Fry
  • Take Echinacea or Olive Leaf Extract – 4 tablets every 4 hours
  • Drink one tablespoon of Swedish Bitters every 4 hours
  • Try to avoid Panadol and antibiotics and cold tablets as they reduce the efficiency of your immune system by attacking your liver to take the bodies attention away from the congested bits. Distraction isn’t a positive long-term remedy for health.
  • Take Valerian if you really need to address pain.
  • MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL: Get some loving – hugs, caresses, kisses (Oh OK not if you are in full lergy swing) and tons of sex as this is the best way to stimulate all your hormones into action to make you feel better.




Let’s protect the continued operation of the business and minimize the sharing of bacteria.


  • Wipe down all desks, screens, phones and door handles with Oil Spray DAILY
  • Open all windows to circulate FRESH AIR as opposed to breathing in each other’s lergies
  • Use Tissues and dispose of in a plastic bag asap
  • Cough and Sneeze away from everyone
  • Wash your hands frequently
  • Go outside in the middle of the day and sit in the sunshine for 10 minutes during your lunch break.
  • Do something about your own condition – don’t suffer or share

Go Home and heal yourself so you can come back to work well and able to do your job.



When working outside PUSHWORTH at night or on weekends, a possible conflict of interest may arise with sleep deprivation.

WHS requires that you get 8 hours sleep per night plus have 1 hour either side to get home before you may attend work again. Working outside of PUSHWORTH is your choice. Please let Nicki know of your other gigs and observe the above WHS requirements at all times.


Computer Safety


Consideration should be given to:

  • The accessories required to operate properly
  • The layout of equipment on the desk
  • The location of furniture in the room


Work surface height


Adjust the height of the work surface and/or the height of the chair so that the work surface allows your elbows to be bent at 90 degrees, forearms parallel with the floor, wrist straight, shoulders relaxed.






Adjust the seat tilt so that you are comfortable when you are working on the keyboard. Usually, this will be close to horizontal but some people prefer the seat tilted slightly forwards. Your knees should be bent at a comfortable angle and greater than 90 degrees flexion. If this places an uncomfortable strain on the leg muscles or if the feet do not reach the floor then a footrest should be used. The footrest height must allow your knees to be bent at 90 degrees. Therefore the height of the footrest may need to be adjustable. Adjust the backrest so that it supports the lower back when you are sitting upright.


Keyboard placement


Place the keyboard in a position that allows the forearms to be close to the horizontal and the wrists to be straight. That is, with the hand in line with the forearm. If this causes the elbows to be held far out from the side of the body then re-check the work surface height. Some people prefer to have their wrists supported on a wrist desk or the desk. Be careful not to have the wrist extended or bent in an up position.


Screen placement


Set the eye to screen distance at the distance that permits you to most easily focus on the screen. Usually this will be within an arm’s length. Set the height of the monitor so that the top of the screen is below eye level and the bottom of the screen can be read without a marked inclination of the head. Usually this means that the centre of the screen will need to be near shoulder height. Eyes level with the tool bar. People who wear bifocal or multi focal lenses will need to get a balance between where they see out of their lenses and avoid too much neck flexion.


Desk-top layout


Place all controls and task materials within a comfortable reach of both hands so that there is no unnecessary twisting of any part of the body. Most people prefer the document holder to be between the keyboard and the monitor. There are many different types of document holders available.


Document holder


Place this close to the monitor screen in the position that causes the least twisting or inclination of the head.



Posture and environment


Change posture at frequent intervals to minimise fatigue. Avoid awkward postures at the extremes of the joint range, especially the wrists. Take frequent short rest breaks rather than infrequent longer ones. Avoid sharp increases in work rate. Changes should be gradual enough to ensure that the workload does not result in excessive fatigue. After prolonged absences from work the overall duration of periods of keyboard work should be increased gradually if conditions permit.




Place the monitor to the side of the light source/s, not directly underneath. Try to site desks between rows of lights. If the lighting is fluorescent strip lighting, the sides of the desks should be parallel with the lights. Try not to put the screen near a window. If it is unavoidable ensure that neither the screen nor the operator faces the window.

If the monitor is well away from windows, there are no other sources of bright light and prolonged desk-work is the norm, use a low level of service light of 300 lux. If there are strongly contrasting light levels, then a moderate level of lighting of 400 – 500 lux may be desirable.


Glare and reflection


It is important to detect the presence of glare and reflection. To determine whether there is glare from overhead lights whilst seated worker should hold an object such as a book above the eyes at eyebrow level and establish whether the screen image becomes clearer in the absence of overhead glare. To detect whether there are reflections from the desk surface,  the worker should hold the book above the surface and assess the change in reflected glare from the screen.

A number of ways are available to eliminate or reduce the influence of these reflections:

Tilt the screen (top part forwards) so that the reflections are directed below eye level.


Purchase an LCD screen.


Cover the screen with a light diffusing surface or anti-glare screen.

Negative contrast screen (dark characters on light background) will reduce the influence of these reflections. If you experience eye discomfort when using a bright screen you should make the following adjustments:

  • Turn the screen brightness down to a comfortable level.
  • Look away into the distance in order to rest the eyes for a short while every ten minutes or so.
  • Change the text and background colours. Recommended are black characters on white or yellow background, or yellow on black, white on black, white on blue and green on white. Avoid red and green and yellow on white.


Using a mouse


A well designed mouse should not cause undue pressure on the wrist and forearm muscles. A large bulky mouse may keep the wrist continuously bent at an uncomfortable angle. Pressure can be reduced by releasing the mouse at frequent intervals, by selecting a slim-line, low-profile mouse. Keep the mouse as close as possible to the keyboard, elbow bent and close to the body.


Keyboard equipment and radiation


Computer screens emit visible light which allows the characters on the screen to be seen. Weak electromagnetic fields and very low levels of other radiation, not visible to the human eye, can be detected by sensitive instruments. Similar emissions are produced by television receivers.

The levels of most radiations and electromagnetic fields emitted from computers are much less than those from natural sources, such as the sun or even the human body and are well below levels considered to be harmful by responsible expert bodies such as the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA).


Keyboard and telephone operations 


Avoid cradling the phone between your head and shoulder when answering calls. If needing to access the computer at the same time a headset is recommended. Hands free/speaker phone is another option if the environment is suitable.


Posture during Keying


Good posture is essential for all users of computers. It comprises of a natural and relaxed position, providing opportunity for movement, and from which the operator can assume a number of alternative positions. It is not a single, rigidly defined position.


Typing technique


Typing is a physical activity, and using a keyboard requires skill, hence the need to learn correct typing technique. Unskilled (‘hunt and peck’) typists are particularly at risk of Occupational Overuse Injury because they:

  • often use only one or two fingers which may overload the finger tendons;
  • are constantly looking from keyboard to screen to keyboard, which may strain neck muscles;
  • Often adopt a tense posture (wrists bent back and fingers ‘poised to strike’).


Speed of keying


The efficiency and speed of modern computers makes it possible for a skilled operator to type extremely quickly. This capability, reinforced by workload pressures means the potential exists for operators to key at speeds which may cause or contribute to Occupational Overuse Syndrome.

The role of the repetitive movement in injury is not fully understood, but is believed to interfere with the lubrication capacity of tendons, and the ability of muscles to receive sufficient oxygen supplies.

10,000 – 12,000 keystrokes per hour is considered an acceptable standard.


Length of time on the keyboard


The maintenance of a fixed posture for long periods is tiring and increases the likelihood of muscular aches and pains. In addition, long periods of repetitive movement and sustained visual attention can also give rise to fatigue-related complaints. It is recommended that operators avoid spending more than five hours a day on keyboard duties and no longer than 50 minutes per hour without a postural/stretching break. Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public newly engaged in keyboard work, and staff returning from an absence of two or more weeks, need a period of adjustment. The adjustment may be achieved through reduced work rates, or provision of alternate duties with gradual re-introduction to keyboard work.


Jobs should be designed and organised so that either:

  • Computer related tasks can be interspersed with non computer related, or
  • Computer based tasks can be rotated amongst several staff (task/job sharing).


It is not the change of task per se, but the change to using different movements and postures that is important. The whole purpose of task variety is to give the overloaded structures a necessary break.

Supervisors should ensure that workload controls are exercised using the following strategies:

  • planning ahead to avoid peaks, and rushed jobs
  • delegating fairly to all staff not just the best workers
  • considering the total workload of the individual (often comes from a number of sources)
  • clearly defining each operator’s workload
  • implementing systems of prioritisation e.g. work request forms, waiting lists
  • using relief staff
  • applying strict tests to the use of ‘urgent’ labels
  • discouraging ‘endless’ drafts
  • discouraging the use of typed internal minutes and memoranda
  • encouraging authors to have realistic expectations
  • teaching authors keyboard skills
  • teaching operators how to be assertive, and how to prioritise
  • supporting operators when authors impose unrealistic expectations
  • refusing illegible drafts





Equipment HAZARDS


Equipment used in the workplace can cause injury through accidents.

The following table provides examples of hazards that may arise in a range of Workplace jobs where different equipment is used.

WorkExamples EquipmentTypes of health or safety problems
Workplacecomputer equipment, lifts, desks and chairs, trolleysoveruse problems, strains, burns, falls
printingpresses, binders, guillotine,entrapment of clothing or body parts, amputations,

As an Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public you have responsibilities under the State or Territory government laws. These are:

  • To follow the operating procedures given to you by your employer
  • Do jobs in the way you’ve been trained and instructed to do
  • Work and behave in ways which are safe and don’t endanger the health or safety of yourself or others
  • Report to your supervisor any health or safety problems you see or are worried about.




All workplaces must provide access to first aid facilities. A workplace should also have at least one designated person responsible for first aid facilities.

If you have been designated the first aid Workplacer then you should make sure that you are properly trained and that the first aid facilities are always well stocked and ready for use in the case of an emergency.

The person designated as the workplace first aid Workplacer should hold a current first aid certificate. A number of first aid certificate courses are available throughout Australia. First aid qualifications can and do expire, so refresher training for first aid attendants will be necessary.

All staff should be made aware of WHO the designated first aid person in the workplace is.




  • Staff Medicare Numbers
  • Staff Medial Fund Details
  • EXIT Sign
  • First Aid Kit
  • Telephone Numbers for Nearest Ambulance, Doctor, Hospitals, Poisons CLEARLY DISPLAYED
  • Accident Protocol
  • Emergency Services Numbers
  • Map showing EXIT, First Aid Kit and Fire Extinguisher
  • Cleaning Protocol – Desks, Phones, PCs and Screens, Doors and Handles – DAILY DISINFECT
  • Kitchen and Washing Up Routine – DAILY DISINFECT
  • Evacuation Process from Building
  • Training – First Aid Workplacer and WHS Workplace
  • First Aid Equipment Check List and Weekly Inventory
  • Print a Number of First Aid Illness and Accident forms
  • Print an extra First Aid Kit Contents Form – one for Kitchen – One for Main Workplace




First aid kits should be clearly marked and placed in a highly visible area.

A first aid kit should be well stocked with dressings and bandages, disinfectants, fasteners, safety pins and other equipment such as resuscitation masks, scissors and splinter forceps.


Instruction leaflets:


Always ensure that the first aid kit has clear instruction leaflets or guides placed somewhere easily referred to. It is always reassuring in the event of an emergency to have clear and easy instructions to follow or have someone else read to you.




First aid Officers should always record details of any injured person they treat. For assessment of potential hazardous areas, it is important that you complete an Incident Report and give to Workplace Manager.





Tilt the head right back and clear the mouth and throat. Check the injured person is breathing with their head back. Give mouth to mouth with five quick breaths. Remember to use the resuscitation mask if you have a first aid kit nearby. Check for a pulse rate. If there is no pulse rate then begin depression of the breast bone with mouth to mouth resuscitation. Once the injured person is breathing again, turn them onto their side and check for bleeding. Seek medical advice.





Scratches and minor wounds:


Clean and disinfect the wound with a disposable cleaning swab. Apply an appropriate sized dressing.

Do not touch the wound or the part of the dressing that will be used on the wound, otherwise it will not be sterile.


Major wounds:


You should not attempt to clean penetrating or larger wounds. Cover with sterilised dressing and seek medical attention. Seek medical advice as to whether tetanus immunisation is needed.


Sprains and Strains:


Rest the arm or leg in the most comfortable position and apply an ice pack covered in cloth to the area. Using roller bandages, the area should be compressed. Seek medical advice.


Burns and Scalds:


Minor burns are best treated by cooling the area with cold water as quickly as possible. Blistering burns should be cooled and the injured person should be taken to a doctor or hospital as soon as possible. No attempt should be made to either clean the wound or remove any charred clothing.

Chemical burns should have the clothing removed and the areas must be washed with running water for up to 20 minutes. Record the name of the chemical that caused the burn and seek medical assistance urgently.


Eye Injuries:


Do not attempt to remove any foreign bodies from the eyes with match sticks or forceps. Try to flush the foreign body out of the eye with running water or a disposable eye wash. If the foreign body has not been removed then simply use a moist handkerchief on the inside of the eyelids or the white of the eye but never the coloured portion of the eye.

If the injury is due to chemicals then rinse the eye out thoroughly, place an eye pad over the eye and seek medical assistance.







The National Occupational Health and Safety Commission have declared a national standard for noise in the workplace as 85 decibels, averaged over an eight hour working day. You can work all day in noise levels below 85 decibels with little risk of hearing damage. Above 85 decibels the risk increases rapidly as the noise gets louder. At 100 decibels, for example, exposure should be no more than 15 minutes a day.


Risk Management

Wear Ear Plugs at gigs.

Facts about hearing protection:

Is there any danger in putting earplugs in your ears?

Earplugs are soft and not long enough to reach far into the ear canal so it is virtually impossible to do any harm. However, if you have an ear infection or have ever had ear surgery, check with a nurse or doctor before using earplugs.

Skin Cancer

Australians have the highest rate of skin cancer in the world. Two out of every three Australians who live to the age of 75 can expect to develop some type of skin cancer. Outdoor Festivals and Events provide risk factors for PUSHWORTH staff.


Risk Management



Try to wear clothing that gives good protection from the sun – for example, trousers instead of shorts, a hat and a long-sleeve shirt with a collar.




Sun protection factor, more commonly known as SPF, is a classification based on Australian Standards. The higher the SPF, up to 15+, the greater your level of protection. A sunscreen works best if you reapply it every two hours. Remember, no sunscreen can give you full protection from sunlight.


Lip protection


Lip cancer from prolonged exposure to sunlight is common in outdoor workers. Your lips should be protected with an SPF 15+ sunscreen or lip protection with the same rating.




Eye protection


If you work in a highly reflective environment then it is recommended that you wear sunglasses that meet Australian Standard AS 1067.1.




Given the proven health risks of smoking, PUSHWORTH is a smoke-free environment. To this end, smoking is prohibited in the PUSHWORTH Workplace. Smokers are required to observe all no-smoking signs and follow directions given by authorised PUSHWORTH staff in regard to the implementation and enforcement of the PUSHWORTH’s policy on smoking.


Areas where smoking is permitted


  • 5 metres away from all entrances as per National Standard
  • Use your own screw top lidded jar to collect all your cigarette butts.
  • Dispose of thoughtfully.


Stress and Burnout at Work


Stress is found in all workplaces, and can have both good and bad effects on individuals, their work performance and their health and well-being. Efforts to control or manage stress levels when it is causing problems in the workplace should focus on changing the work environment or providing affected Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public with help to reduce high levels of stress.

There are a range of physical, psychological and behavioural symptoms you can experience if you are faced with high levels of stress. Stress is subjective and is based on a number of variables including the individual hierarchy of values, belief structures and behavioural patterns and usually manifests when the individual has not consolidated and linked their values to the job description and the company values. Therefore when there are issues such as:

  • lack of control over workloads, over – demanding workloads or schedules;
  • lack of clear direction from management;
  • lack of information on work role and objectives, career opportunities or job security;
  • conflict between individuals or areas, either section rivalry or personal discrimination or harassment

Symptoms of stress will manifest.


Risk Management


Personal and Professional Development programs where Corporate Culture, Strategic and Operational Platforms are established and linked to value systems for all individuals who are reviewed Quarterly will alert the Workplace Manager and the Directors to potential HR risks for further management.






Many chemicals and other substances used or produced in the workplace can be hazardous to your health. A large number of workers in a wide range of jobs may be exposed to them. This exposure can lead to cancers and other diseases. The skin condition known as dermatitis can also be caused by contact with hazardous substances.

It is estimated that there are 2,200 deaths in Australia each year due to past occupational exposures to hazardous substances, including asbestos.

Australian occupational health and safety laws require that exposure to hazardous substances is kept below levels at which health effects are known to occur. These laws require workplaces to make sure everyone knows:

  • what hazardous substances are being used;
  • what effects they can have on your health;
  • what has to be done to prevent or minimise exposure to hazardous substances.




Hazardous substances are chemicals and other substances that can affect your health, causing illness or disease. They may be solvents, pesticides, paints, adhesives, petroleum products, heavy metals or any other substance that is hazardous to health and is used or produced at work. Hazardous substances can take many forms – liquids, solids, vapours, gases, fumes or dusts.


How can you tell if a substance you use at work is hazardous?


To be classified as a hazardous substance, the ingredients of the substance must be present in concentrations that are known to cause health effects. Where this is the case, the substance must be labelled appropriately to ensure that users know it is hazardous. It must also be accompanied by a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) setting out health effects, instructions for safe use and storage and what to do in an emergency.

The easiest way to determine if a substance is hazardous is to look on the label for the words “hazardous”, “warning”, “poison”, “dangerous poison”, “harmful”, or “corrosive”, or other advice about specific health effects.


Your employer must make the MSDS for a hazardous substance readily accessible to you and ensure there is a hazardous substances register (a list of all the hazardous substances used or produced at the workplace together with the MSDSs for those substances).


In the absence of information such as labels and MSDSs, you should assume a substance to be hazardous.

For some hazardous substances, exposure standards have been set. These apply where a substance is a contaminant in workplace air – for example as a dust, fume or gas. About 600 common hazardous substances have exposure standards. Where an exposure standard exists for a particular substance, the concentration of that substance in the air at work must be kept below the prescribed level.




Hazardous substances can get into your body in different ways. The most common ways are:

  • by breathing in the substance (inhalation);
  • absorption through the skin (dermal);
  • accidental swallowing (ingestion), for example by eating or smoking with contaminated hands.

Health effects may be acute, resulting from a short-term (usually high) exposure or chronic, resulting from long-term (often low level) exposure over a period of time. Chronic effects may not occur for many years – they are hard to predict in advance and when they do occur it may be hard to identify what caused them.




To know whether there is a risk of exposure it is necessary to make an assessment of likely exposure to hazardous substances in your workplace. In order to do this you must:

  • Identify hazardous substances – look at the label;
  • Review information about hazardous substances – read the MSDSs and make sure all instructions are being followed;
  • Identify any risks of exposure – take into account factors such as how often exposure occurs, for how long and at what level – it may be necessary to get a professional to measure the air concentration of hazardous substances.




Your employer must take action to prevent your exposure to hazardous substances at work, or if that is not practicable, to ensure that exposure is adequately controlled so as to minimise risks to your health.

As an Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public you have the responsibility to work safely using the control measures provided. To ensure you can work safely you have the right to be provided with information and training on any hazardous substances to which you may be exposed. This should include advice about health hazards, reading labels on containers and how to access the MSDS as well as emergency procedures, incident reporting and first aid.




There are a number of practical actions that can be to reduce the risks of working with hazardous substances. Below are suggested actions, with the ones that are generally the most effective listed first.



  • Removal of a hazardous substance which is not essential – for example, cleaning by the use of ultra-sound instead of with a chemical solvent.



  • Using a less hazardous substance, or a less hazardous form or process – for example using a water-based paint instead of a chemical solvent-based paint.



  • Separating hazardous substances from the people using them by distance or barriers, for example locating operators in a separate air-conditioned control room away from hazardous fumes.


Engineering Controls:

  • Using machinery, equipment or processes which minimise workplace contamination by containing or removing hazardous substances – for example using local exhaust ventilation to remove hazardous fumes.




Having procedures about how to do the job safely – for example requiring authorisation to operate systems and restricting access to hazardous areas.




Wearing protective equipment, for example respirators, gloves or eye protection, PPE must be suitable for the type of substance, fitted to the worker and must comply with relevant Australian Standards. PPE should only be used to provide extra protection, or where other control measures are not practicable, for example during maintenance or emergency operations.




For some hazardous substances it may be necessary to monitor the amount of the substance in the workplace environment. Where monitoring shows your exposure is approaching unsafe levels, immediate action should be taken.

Health surveillance means the monitoring of your health to identify health effects from exposure to a hazardous substance. Your employer must pay for any required health surveillance and must consult you before selecting the medical practitioner to do it.

Records of any monitoring or health surveillance must be kept for 30 years.









Under common law, employers have a duty of care to take all reasonable measures to protect their Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public from foreseeable risks arising from their employment. This duty of care embraces provision of the following

  • Sufficient competent staff
  • A safe system or method of work
  • A Safe work environment
  • Safe plant and equipment including reasonably foreseeable misuse of such
  • Adequate training, instruction and supervision


The major elements of the employer’s obligations are to ensure a safe workplace for all through identifying hazards, assessing the risk, eliminating the risk or minimising the potential harmful consequences of the hazard.


Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public also have an obligation under the Act to maintain healthy and safe workplace conduct. An Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public or anyone else at a workplace has the following obligations under Section 36 of the Act:

  • To comply with the instructions given for workplace health and safety at the workplace by the employer or anyone representing the employer
  • For an Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public – to use personal protective equipment if the equipment is provided by the employer and the Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public is properly instructed in its use
  • Not to wilfully or recklessly interfere with or misuse anything provided for workplace health and safety
  • Not to wilfully place at risk the health and safety of any person at the workplace
  • Not to wilfully injure himself or herself.


Persons other than an employer or Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public must comply with the standards applying at the workplace and obey safety directions at that workplace.

The Workplace Health and Safety Act define and require an employer to record injuries, illnesses and dangerous events at the workplace. These serious or potentially serious matters should be immediately telephoned through to the Health and Safety Advisory Services staff or after hours to the emergency number for security who will contact the relevant Associate Director.


Regulations under the Workplace Health and Safety Act set specific requirements with regard to systems of work, working environment, plant, equipment, substances and materials used in the workplace, and certification and training of Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public. These regulations call up a large number of Australian Standards.










Manual handling means more than just lifting or carrying something. The term “manual handling” is used to describe a range of activities including lifting, lowering, pushing, pulling, carrying, moving, holding or restraining an object, animal or person. It also covers activities which require the use of force or effort such as pulling a lever, or operating power tools.




Up to one third of all work injuries in Australia occur during manual handling.

Most of the reported accidents involving manual handling tasks cause back injury although hands arms and feet are also vulnerable. Sometimes the person injured never fully recovers or requires a long period of rehabilitation before they are able to work again.




A risk situation can arise when tasks are poorly designed or where handling involves awkward or constrained postures. These conditions can make it difficult for you to use good handling techniques.

Some examples of actions that may cause manual handling injuries are:

  • Work involving sudden, jerky or hard to control movements or which causes discomfort and pain;
  • Work involving too much bending, reaching or twisting;
  • Work where a long time is spent holding the same posture or position;
  • Work that is fast and repetitious;
  • Heavy weights which have to be lifted and carried manually;
  • Work where force is needed to carry out a task;


Ask yourself the following questions to assist in recognising manual handling risks in your workplace:


  • Does the workplace layout make it difficult for people to maintain correct posture?
  • Are there any jobs which involve frequent manual handling – the risk will be greater where handling is required often, at a fast pace and for long periods of time.
  • Are the loads to be handled below your mid-thigh or above your shoulder – heavy or awkward loads or items that are moved frequently should not be stored at these levels.
  • How much does the load weigh?
  • Does the load require the use of force to move it or hold it still while handling it?
  • Are any of the loads you move difficult to handle because their shape, contents or their own ability to move themselves?
  • Is there sufficient staff to meet deadlines and allow for rest breaks?
  • Is the flooring in your workplace uneven or slippery?
  • Is your workplace excessively hot, cold or humid?
  • Is the lighting adequate?
  • If you need to wear particular work clothes such as uniform or protective equipment do they restrict movement or posture?
  • Has the staff been properly trained for the tasks?


Warning signs to look out for include excessive fatigue, bad posture, crPushworth or untidy work areas, awkward or heavy loads, or a history of manual handling injuries in particular work areas.

It is important to take into account all of the factors listed above when you are assessing the likelihood of injury.




PUSHWORTH has a legal responsibility to provide a safe and healthy workplace for all Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public. The national standard for manual handling requires that all tasks in your workplace which involve manual handling are identified and that the risk or likelihood of injury is assessed. Where there is a risk of injury, suitable “control measures” are introduced. Control measures need to be suitable and practical. They might include:

  • Redesigning the task or load that needs to be moved;
  • Providing mechanical handling devices such as hoists or trolleys;
  • Safe work procedures such as team lifting; or
  • Specific training for particular handling tasks.


As a Team Member, Customer, Supplier, Student and Member of the Public, if you are aware of anything in your workplace which could be a manual handling risk, you should discuss it with Nichola Burton.




Controlling the risk

The best way to reduce the risk of manual handling injuries is to redesign the task or work area to make it safer. There are a number of ways to do this:


Modify the object

For example, change the shape of bulky objects so that they are easier to hold, or pack products in smaller cartons.


Modify the work area or workstation layout

For example, use an adjustable platform to reduce stooping and reaching and ensure work surfaces are at the correct height.



Change the way things are moved

Eliminate unnecessary handling. Ensure that all heavy objects are at waist level where they can be handled comfortably.


Use different actions, movements and forces

Reducing the amount of bending, lifting, twisting, reaching and holding required to carry out a task will reduce the risk of injury.


Modify the task

Modify the task by using tools such as levers, hooks or crowbars or by team lifting.


Ongoing evaluation is an important part of the risk control process. Check that risk control measures are effective and change them if they are not effective.


Please email incident report to:


[email protected]


Unauthorised Animals in PUSHWORTH Workplace

There are NO circumstances where animals should be permitted into the PUSHWORTH Workplace. Animals carry their own disease and parasitic risks. These risks should not be imposed on PUSHWORTH colleagues, some of whom may be immunosuppressed or are at special risk, whether such state is currently known or not.

Registered Guide Dogs will receive approval.


Workplace Harassment

In all states and territories there are both federal and state anti-discrimination/equal opportunity laws that protect you from harassment in your workplace. However, the combined effect of these federal and state laws is slightly different in each state and territory.

Throughout Australia, it is against the law for you to be harassed because of your:

  • sex;
  • pregnancy;
  • race (including such things as colour, nationality, ethnic descent and ethnic background);
  • marital status; or
  • Disability (including physical, intellectual or psychiatric disability; and including actual, perceived, past, present or future disability).





Behaviour Indicators:


  • material that is racist, sexist, sexually explicit, homophobic (anti-gay) and so on and is displayed in the workplace, circulated, or put in someone’s workspace or belongings, or on a computer or fax machine or on the Internet.
  • verbal abuse or comments that put down or stereotype people because of their sex, pregnancy, marital status, race, homosexuality, disability, transsexuality or age.
  • Gestures which are sexually or racially offensive.
  • Ignoring, isolating or segregating a person or group because of their sex, race etc.
  • Staring or leering in a sexual manner.
  • Sexual or physical contact, such as slapping, kissing or touching.
  • Intrusive questions about sexual activity.
  • Sexual assault (also an offence under the Crimes Act).
  • Unwelcome wolf whistling.
  • Repeated sexual invitations when the person invited has refused similar invitations before.
  • Initiation ceremonies that involve unwelcome sexual, sexist, racist behaviour.
  • Jokes based on gender, pregnancy, race, marital status, homosexuality, disability, transgender (transsexuality) or age. There is a difference between harmless humour which may refer to gender, race and so on and using a racist, sexist or other types of stereotyping jokes to have a “dig” at someone (and therefore to harass them). If this difference is not clear or if someone is offended, the behaviour should stop immediately.

The law says that your employer must not harass you or any of his or her Team Members, Customers, Suppliers, Students and Members of the Public at work. It also says that employers must do their best to make sure that there is no harassment in the workplace.


Risk Management


Personal and Professional Development programs where Corporate Culture, Strategic and Operational Platforms are established and linked to value systems for all individuals who are reviewed quarterly will alert the Workplace Manager and the Directors to potential HR risks for further management.

Grievance Disciplinary Policy to be established with clear guidelines, training and protocols.


Workplace Layout and Design


Poor workplace layout and design are major factors contributing to workplace injuries.

As well as increasing the risk of sprain and strain injuries and occupational overuse injuries (OOS), bad workplace layout and design increases the risk of collisions, trips and falls. It also make it difficult to deal with emergency situations.

There are a number of factors which need to be considered when assessing workplace design and layout. These include not only the physical layout of your workplace, but also lighting, temperature and ventilation.


Physical layout:

  • Are desks, benches and chairs suitable for the people using them and for the tasks they are performing? Poorly designed chairs which cannot be adjusted for height and to support your lower back can cause back pain. Desks and which are not ergonomically designed and adjustable to accommodate a range of heights can also cause discomfort and increase the risk of OOS and other injuries.
  • Are passages and exits kept clear at all times? Accidents can be caused by poor housekeeping, for examples boxes stacked near workstations, or in passages and doorways, or equipment left lying about on the floor.
  • Is equipment with dangerous moving parts properly guarded? Unguarded equipment is a frequent cause of workplace injuries and fatal accidents.
  • Are electric cords kept clear of walkways and other areas where people could trip over them? Are cords and extension leads kept away from areas where they could get wet?
  • Are suitable lifting and carrying devices such as hoists and trolleys supplied? Many lifting tasks require the use of these devices.
  • Are items which must be manually lifted and carried stored and worked on at a suitable height? Well designed storage areas and work areas can significantly reduce the amount of bending, twisting and lifting that you need to do to carry out your tasks. Reducing these activities will also reduce the risk of back and other injuries occurring.


Air and temperature:


Is the workplace kept at a comfortable temperature? Thermal stress associated with heat, inadequate airflow or cold conditions can increase the risk of health problems occurring. Badly designed air-conditioning – such as the positioning of vents above workstations – can create draughts, cause discomfort and contribute to OOS problems.




Is noisy equipment enclosed or located away from where people are working? Noisy equipment not only affects concentration, it can also cause permanent hearing loss.




Are lighting levels suitable for the tasks being performed? Lighting problems – such as flickering lights, glare and a lack of natural light – can cause eyestrain and vision problems.


Risk Management


Through regular inspection safety checks conducted by Workplace Manager and Directors you can identify and rectify hazardous situations before they cause health and safety problems.


Things to consider include:


  • work station height and location and walking distance to complete job cycles;
  • pedestrian and traffic access to the workplace;
  • whether tasks need to be performed seated, or standing or a combination of both;


Purchasing procedures in your workplace can also be reviewed to ensure that health and safety issues are taken into account prior to the selection of new equipment and furniture so that new hazards are not introduced.




  • Computers which are poorly placed – for example in a position that causes screen glare from reflected lights or not at the correct height for the user – can contribute to OOS.
  • Keyboards which are not adjustable for height or placement and badly designed mouses can add to the strain associated with constant keyboard use.
  • Keyboard work should be alternated with other non-repetitive tasks throughout the working day to relieve strain. Devices to assist keyboard work, such as document holders, wrist rests, angle boards, and footrests should be supplied if required.
  • Training in basic typing skills can reduce the incidence of neck strain caused by continuously looking down at the keyboard. Regular exercise breaks should be taken. Adjustable desks and chairs to suit individual needs should be supplied.
  • Heavily used photocopiers may require isolation and adequate ventilation as they have parts which heat and produce potentially toxic fumes. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for photocopier chemicals should be provided by suppliers for staff who use photocopiers a lot. Disposable gloves should be provided for handling toner.





BCF53733P Rural And General 2017/2018






If you suffer from symptoms which may be attributable to your work, particularly if they recur, then it is important to tell your doctor and employer. Visit your doctor, giving as much information as possible to enable him/her to decide whether or not your condition is likely to be due to your work. If you have a nurse or doctor at work then you should also tell them about your problem. You may also want Nichola Burton to know that you think your job is causing physical problems.

Early reporting of such problems will enable your employer to take action to prevent further complaints and reduce the likelihood of long-term disability.




If you have injured your back and you require rehabilitation, it should be commenced as soon as the acute stage has passed and your doctor permits. The rehabilitation may take one of two forms:

  • Work-based
  • Off Work Away From The Workplace




A work based rehabilitation program is performed entirely or in part at your workplace using normal or selected work tasks. This is usually the preferred option as it:

  • promotes your recovery as tasks are graded in accordance with improvements in your condition;
  • minimises lost time and your employer’s compensation costs;
  • prevents you from suffering the negative effects of a prolonged absence from work.


Off Work Away From The Workplace


Due to the nature of their injury some workers may have to be off work – sometimes for several months. Before being capable (physically as well as mentally) to return to any duties at the workplace, they may require intensive physical and work conditioning supervised by trained professionals.

All rehabilitation requires regular contact with all involved persons to ensure the program is monitored and reviewed. You should be consulted and involved in all decision-making and should not be left indefinitely on selected duties. Your individual rehabilitation program should have defined goals within an estimated though flexible time frames to assist such reviews.





Some workers are more at risk of back injuries than others. If your everyday activities put your back at risk, use these back safety tips to make your job easier and safer:




Kneel down on one knee, or bend your knees and hips while holding your back straight. Place one hand on your knee or a desk when bending from a seated position.




Whenever you can, push instead of pull. This puts less stress on your back and you have twice as much power. Stay close to the trolley or machine you are using and avoid reaching. Use both arms to prevent strain.




  • Avoid heavy loads; split large loads into smaller, more manageable loads. Lift an object by standing closer to it, then bend your knees to lower yourself into a squatting position while keeping your back upright and moving slowly into a standing position. Carry objects close to your body with your elbows tucked close to your torso.




  • To get objects from a high shelf, use a sturdy stool or ladder. Keep your shoulders, hips and feet facing the object; avoid twisting to reach things to the side. Before lifting, test the weight of the object by tipping one corner.
  • Exercise for Strength and Flexibility:
  • A regular program of exercise will strengthen key muscle groups and increase your flexibility. A strong, flexible back will not only make you feel better, but also reduce your risk of injury.
















Safety Guidelines, Checklists and Standards
A Guide to Risk Management
AEIA Safety Guide Entertainment Industry
Anthrax Checklist
Basic Life Support Flow Chart
Bomb Threat Checklist
Bomb Threat Procedure
Children of Staff in PUSHWORTH Workplace
Cleaning and Sanitising Fact Sheet
Computer Safety
Core Training Hazards
CPR Check List
Earthquake Check List
Electrical Safety Policy
Emergency Check List
Fire Extinguisher Check List
Fire Safety Check List
Fire Spread Check List
First Aid Action Plan
First Aid Advisory
First Aid Check List
First Aid Kit Guide
First Aid Plan PUSHWORTH
Hazard Rating Codes, Process and System
Heat Wave Action Guide
How to Lift Safely
Music Industry Noise
National Standard for Manual Handling
National Standard for Occupational Noise
Noise Guide
Notification of Serious Bodily Injuries, Illnesses and Dangerous Events
Workplace Layout
PUSHWORTH Workplace Common Hazards Chart
Relocation Guide to Manual Handling
Safe Working in a Confined Space
Severe Storm Action Guide
Sunsafe Policy
WHS Amendment Bill 2002
WHS Legislation
WHSO Information
Workplace Bullying
Workplace Injury Disease Recording Standard
Workplace Inspection Checklist
Workstation Assessment Checklist





Forms Available
First Aid Report
First Aid Treatment Form
Health and Safety Review
Incident Report Form
Injuries Disease Return
Hazard Reporting Form
Safety Problems Report
Risk Management
Risk Assessment
Risk Review
Work Cover Employer Form

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